This area of the website contains introductory material on the fundamental principles of performance that guided singers in the period from about 1500 to around 1830. Detailed discussions may be found in two books by Robert Toft:

      Bel Canto: A Performer’s Guide (Oxford University Press, 2013)

      With Passionate Voice: Re-Creative Singing in Sixteenth-Century England and Italy (Oxford University Press, 2014)